¹23 (186) July, 2004

RUSSIAN LITURGICAL CHORAL AESTHETICS:
ITS PAST IN TRADITION AND PRESENT IN RUINS


Olga Dolskaya

(Continued from "Russian Inok", June 2004)

Epilogue

We need leaders who have nothing but contempt and mortal hate towards the bourgeoisie, who will organize and prepare the proletariat for a merciless battle, who will not hesitate to use the most violent means towards all those who stand in their way. It is the most furious and relentless civil war that the world has ever known in all the History of the Universe!
(Zinoviev)

After having examined the devastation in church music, one inadvertently stumbles upon the question - how could it have happened? What were the reasons, the forces behind such destruction? The following pages might help us in our quest to comprehend the magnitude of its impact upon aspects of life that were of primary importance to people, forcing them into silence for decades to come. Today, we find it difficult to even perceive what really happened not only in Russia, but in other countries taken over by communist totalitarian regimes. Perhaps the following pages can serve as illustration of at least certain aspects of the tragedy, and will help us all become more aware of its underlying currents.
A Message of the Church of Ekaterinodar [Kuban] to the Christian Churches of the World:

Brethren! Our sufferings have filled the cup of our trials to over flowing! The Orthodox Church in Russia is being subjected to cruel persecution. The sanctuaries of our faith are being profaned by insolent blasphemers. Altars are being destroyed, and particles of the Holy Sacrament are being cast out of the tabernacles… Many churches have been either demolished by the Red Army soldiers, or sealed up by the Soviet authorities, or turned into places of amusement, into prisons, and even into dumping grounds for garbage. Fourteen Bishops, hundreds of priests, particularly those who distinguished themselves by firmness in their defense of the faith and by the gift of eloquence in their sermons, have been shot, hanged, drowned, burned, and the executions of clergymen are frequently preceded by the most cruel tortures. So, for instance Bishop Andronicus of Perm had his eyes put out, his cheeks sliced out, and, thus bleeding to death, he was led about the town. In the Province of Kherson a priest was crucified. Such acts have occurred in every diocese… Prayer at school has been forbidden… Holy Images have been forcibly removed from public buildings and private houses and have been subjected to a tax… What frightens us most is the moral deterioration… Trampling in the mire everything that is dear to the people in the realm of religion and piety, the Bolsheviks endeavor to inflame the people with hatred and to rouse predatory instincts. Complete license to animal passions and lust constitutes their main enticement… Upon this, as well as upon Terror, the Bolsheviks build their power. As a striking example, we may point to the decrees on socializing the women, issued in certain localities, by which the women are reduced to a state of mere female animals, doomed to be the victims of any sensual pervert. Innocent children, by decrees of socialization of children, are ruthlessly torn from their parents' homes, from parents' love, and are flung into the slough of an ungodly and immoral atmosphere… The chief agents for carrying out their evil decrees and the perpetrators of tortures and executions of peaceful inhabitants are the Chinese and the traitorous Letts… defenseless, unarmed, terrorized by mass-executions, the nation is compelled to remain silent… All these horrors daily carry away thousands of victims to their graves, increase the epidemics, embitter the people and in every respect ruin the land…380

In 1919, a series of decrees and orders were issued by Bolshevik leaders, Lenin, Iakov Sverdlov, Leon Trotsky, Felix (Yuzef) Dzerzhinsky and others, to exterminate the entire Don and Kuban Cossack population - this due to the fact that the Cossacks upheld a profound dedication to Orthodoxy, the Tsar, and the Russian Land. In these decrees we read:

…implement the most merciless struggle with all the upper levels of Cossack society by way of their extermination… the more of them we butcher, the quicker will Soviet leadership be established in the Don… a complete, quick, and absolute obliteration of the Cossack people… to ordain the resettlement of Cossack farms with repatriation from Central Russia… so that under the pretense of suppression, we annihilate the entire Cossack population.381

Thus in a matter of a few weeks and in one region alone, Sverdlov and Trotsky succeeded in killing more than a million people, including women,382 children, and the elderly. Then when all quieted down and Wrangel's army left, seventy thousand of those who remained behind in the Crimea, were killed or drowned in the Black Sea, with stones tied to their feet. Lenin's choice of words for people who resisted the enforcement of socialism/communism was "harmful insects," whereas Trotsky's was "nasty monkeys without tails, labeled as people."383 Those who resisted and refused to work for the Bolsheviks, comprised ninety percent of the population. "What is Russia," said Trotsky, "but a bunch of twigs to be thrown into the fire of world revolution."384 "Let us finally write, in black and white, that in this entire world, there has never existed a phenomenon more oriented against people than Bolshevism."385
Lenin's deeply-warped hatred of religion and Russians keeps resurfacing in his letters. To Gorky, he wrote in November of 1913: "Any notion about any sort of religion, any sort of god, even the slightest fancy with a god is intolerably loathsome…"386 To his assistant Barzin, he wrote: "Hand out the work to Russian idiots: send the cuttings here, but not occasional issues (as these idiots have been doing until now)."387 To Lenin's highly prejudiced comportment, Volkogonov responds: "Without a blush, he could call his fellow-countrymen idiots who could be trusted to do only the simplest tasks, while left-wingers from Zurich had to be paid 'arch-generously'." 388 In writing to one of his main agitators, who had just published a book on the electrification of Russia, Lenin declared:

Comrade Stepanov, I have just finished looking through 160 pages of your book… Yes, it is a book! It is a model of how a Russian savage should be taught from the very beginning… write another on the history of religion and against every religion…with a survey of material on the history of atheism and on the links between the Church and the bourgeoisie. Once again, greetings and congratulations on your magnificent success. Your Lenin.389

From Lenin's wife we learn of another association, one with "Father" Gapon, or the "innocent" priest who led the famous "peaceful" march of Bloody Sunday in 1905, who was actually an SR agent in close contact with Lenin.
Soon Gapon arrived in Geneva [1905]. First he got in touch with the Socialist-Revolutionaries… he was the centre of general attention, and the English Times paid him fabulous sums for contributions… Gapon [during his meeting with Lenin] completely flared up, seethed with indignation and revulsion against the Tsar and his agents… On February 8th, Vladimir Ilich wrote in No. 7 of Vperiod: "We hope George Gapon, who has experienced and felt so profoundly the transition from the opinions of a politically unconscious people to revolutionary views, will succeed in working to obtain that clarity of revolutionary outlook necessary for a political leader…." Gapon undertook the task of supplying the Petersburg workers with arms… He obtained from us an illegal passport and contacts and went off to Petersburg to organize the affair. Vladimir Ilich saw, in the whole of this enterprise, words being turned into deeds… Gapon once asked Vladimir Ilich to listen to a manifesto he had written, and which he began to read out with great pathos. The manifesto was filled with curses on the Tsar.390

The connection between Lenin and Gapon is not an isolated incident. It is no surprise how effectively the reins of power passed from Kerensky to Lenin, considering the friendship between their parents in Simbirsk.
Lenin's close association with liberal "religious" writers and philosophers who agitated against Russia is yet another hidden aspect of the unremitting process of laying the ground for the revolution and the destruction of Russia:

We must collect all the manuscripts and send them to St. Petersburg, to the writer [P. Struve], he is so kind that he does not mind the tasks. As to money, write him that it is plentiful, so that he can let us know how much he needs; and ask him to get to work in the fall without delay, not wasting any time, as soon as he finds it possible… as to St. Petersburg, the writer [Struve] (and we can trust him) speaks with certainty. Of course, if I had any idea about the marvels of the "first enthroned" [first capital, Moscow] and its censorship - I would not have even thought of publishing books in Moscow. But I learned about it too late, in a letter from N.K. (Krupskaia) after she received advice from the writer [Struve].391

The above letter from Lenin is about Peter Struve, one of the leading members of the intelligentsia, who prior to the revolution, was a publisher of Marxist revolutionary writings, and as emigre to the West, became an agitator against monarchy. As dissenters, intelligentsia paved the way for discord and became the chief promoters of the ecumenical movement. Their members form a direct line from pre-revolutionary "reform-minded" (renovationism), to "the living church", to the adherents presently known as "new revisionists" or modernists. Aside from denigrating the monarchy, they never relinquished the idea of serving the treacherous communist-based Moscow Patriarchate, responsible for the persecution of Orthodox Christians up to the present. The circle included S. Frank, N. Berdiaev, S. Bulgakov and his heresy of Sophianism, N. Fedorov, P. Florensky, V. Rozanov, I. Ilin, the Trubetskoys, the Kovalevskys, N. Lossky, A. Kartashev, N. Zernov, V. Zenkovsky, and others. A definite thread exists between Lenin and his Politburo,392 arranging and paying for their travel expenses 393 for them to be "exiled" to the West - to the process of organizing "religious" centers in Berlin, Prague, Paris, and London for the promotion of ecumenism. These centers were funded by such organizations as The League of Nations, The Rockefeller Foundation, the YMCA394 and The World Council of Churches395 (WCC).396 By paying their expenses and supporting their move abroad, the Bolsheviks sought not only to create dissension in the emigration but, more important, attempted to control the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad.
The following is an order given by the communist Politburo to create havoc in the church and contribute to destruction from within:

Commission Tuchkov [responsible for exterminating thousands of Orthodox Russians] to initiate through the renovationists' Synod, a campaign to establish renovationist groups abroad…397
And thus was installed a favorite tactic of the Bolsheviks - to casually infiltrate, then conquer. In 1925, they even went so far as to open two "seminary academies" in Leningrad - one Tikhonite and the other renovationist - and then immediately gave Tuchkov the order (14 Feb 1925) to unite them into one Renovationist Academy,398 thus engulfing the Tikhonites, who to this day are their fiercest enemies.
Some of the centers in which these writers were active included the Paris St. Sergius Theological Seminary399 and St. Vladimir's Seminary in New York. One of their leading masterminds, and friend of Struve, was Simon Frank,400 whose anti-Russian inclinations are well-known. He and Struve "trembled with joy" on hearing of the sinking of the Russian fleet in Tsushima Strait during the Russo-Japanese war.401 Frank became famous for such malicious statements as "Nicholas II did not represent the Russian nation, only the gendarmes and the Cossacks,"402 which influenced the thinking of many this century. "Although Frank…was never a strict church-goer, he had become seriously involved in church matters… He believed that the Moscow Patriarchate was the canonical church"403 and welcomed Metropolitan Evlogy's allegiance to Metropolitan Sergius Stragorodsky of Moscow. Frank was financially supported by various ecumenical organizations such as the YMCA, RSKhD, the League of Nations and the WCC.404 After all, even back in 1903, Struve and his "religious" writers propagated the idea of "a common cause" which meant a complete dedication to doing away with the old order of Orthodox Russia and its Tsar, calling for "the rise against autocracy"405 - which eventually led to the Bolshevik slogan, "Down with autocracy!" The origins of the "common cause" are in the writings labeled as such of one of the earliest religious philosophers on ecumenism, N. Fedorov.406

A major activist for ecumenism and modernism, Helene Iswolsky wrote:

Berdiaev, Bulgakov, and another young professor, Peter Struve, all three of whom contributed to Vekhi, were former Marxists who had supplanted historical materials by Christian idealism [ecumenism].407 In the Meudon villa [Maritain's Catholic and ecumenist center near Paris] I saw most of the men who contributed to the French Catholic revival… Igor Stravinsky, Marc Chagall, Arthur Lourie and Nicholas Nabokov… during that year I visited with the Maritains, the Russian Orthodox thinker Nicholas Berdiaev in his home in Clamart, which lies two miles away from Meudon. Special meetings were held by Berdiaev in order to come to a better understanding with Catholics… there were a few others mostly belonging to the Russian Divinity Institute of Paris [St. Sergius]… Nicholas Berdiaev also received his friends on Sunday… [His] youthful development followed almost the same lines as that of Maritain. He too was a materialist and a militant socialist. As a full-fledged young philosopher, he joined the group of the first Russian Marxists headed by Plekhanoff. In 1898, another member of this group, Professor Peter Struve, published the manifesto of the Russian Social-Democratic Party… Berdiaev's regular Sunday visitors included: Professor Fedotoff, Mother Mary, the Russian nun in her black habit, Ilya Fondaminsky [former revolutionary], editor of The New City, Professor D. Lowry and Paul Anderson of the American YMCA408 would sometimes drop in, both speaking fluent Russian…409

In the USA, where Iswolsky continued her assiduous agitation after WWII, she helped found the Institute of Contemporary Russian Studies, at Fordham University.

We had the visit of a number of Protestant speakers, Episcopalians, and Russian Orthodox. Some of them, like the Lutheran Pastor von Schenk and Father Alexander Schmemann, rector of Saint Vladimir's Russian Orthodox Seminary, were to play an important role when the ecumenical movement officially "surfaced." They were active at Vatican Council II and in the great assemblies of the World Council of Churches (WCC).410

As to Berdiaev, he is known to have declared:

Against my free conscience I will never accept anything, I will not even accept God Himself, as God cannot act as a compelling force on me.411

Berdiaev is described widely as an existentialist and has been accused of anthropolatry. His colleague and coeval Sergius Bulgakov, who had followed a very similar path from Marxism to Orthodoxy but who later was to become an Orthodox priest, described Berdiaev's ideas on creativity as "demonic, titanic, humanistic and nearly akin to Anti-Christ."412

Not only did Berdiaev and his circle not "repent" for their antireligious Marxist position but they took their antireligious propaganda abroad where they openly and continuously preached union with Moscow. By pledging loyalty to the "Mother Church," Metropolitan Evlogy had to collaborate with Metropolitan Sergius of Moscow, who demanded that signatures of bishops and clergy be sent to him, along with a list of those who abstained.413 Metropolitan Evlogy's continued relationship with Moscow divided and weakened the Church Abroad414 - all while Martyrs Metropolitans Peter and Joseph (first hierarchs of the Catacomb Church) along with millions of faithful were sent to their deaths, and churches and sacred sites such as the Iveron Chapel were being destroyed. Thus, the "unofficial" True Orthodox Church had no alternative but to withdraw into the catacombs. The idea of a Catacomb Church was conceived by its spiritual father, Patriarch Tikhon who shortly before his death, expressed the opinion that the only way for the Russian Orthodox Church to maintain her fidelity to Christ in the future would be to escape into the catacombs.415 The Bolshevik-led Living Church prepared the path for destruction by turning a deaf ear to the agony of the faithful, not unlike some are doing today. By their silence and collaboration with the godless authorities, the Official Church promoted the destruction of anything related to Orthodoxy in Russia and abroad.416
It is to Miliukov's liberal Duma, to the heads of the Provisional Government such as Kerensky, Nabokov and Rodzianko, to "religious" and Marxist writers such as Struve, Bulgakov and Berdiaev who planted the seeds for the revolution, and to present-day collaborators with the godless authorities, that we should turn to find answers to the ghastly reality of the loss of millions of lives - a reality that continues to be silenced to this day. The West has been blinded by such writings as Struve's Christians in Contemporary Russia, in which he, like many others in the West, approved the activities of Patriarch Sergius, even going as far as comparing him with St. Sergius of Radonezh,417 and this as late as the 60s - during some of the worst years of persecution of the Orthodox. Many more are responsible for the Tragedy; may they all be forgiven. Who did it is no longer relevant; what is important is who will help raise Russia out of the ashes of communism?

Bulgakov and his colleagues' liberal program of "political liberation, economic rebirth, cultural renaissance, and religious reform, all of which were to lead to a true spiritual resurrection of the Russian people," were all pointed in the direction of the destruction of the monarchy, Marxist economy, the reforms of the renovationists and what became known as the Living Church. In fact, they "shared a vision of a new Russia in which the nineteenth-century formula of "Orthodoxy, autocracy, and nationality" would be dissolved, to be replaced by…a secular civil society.418

One should distinguish between the leaders of the renovationists and those who followed innocently. By glancing at the entire process, one can easily see the leaders at work:

The path trod by clerical liberalism was no less dramatic. On the eve of 1905 some priests in St. Petersburg were already drawn into discussions on Christian socialism, and one of their member George Gapon, led the workers on the ill-fated march on Bloody Sunday. Rooted in earlier interest and reinforced by the revolutionary rhetoric of 1905, the views of some parish clergy drifted steadily leftward… Even in more conservative Moscow the parish clergy, especially the younger generation, "had very liberal political views and unofficially belonged to the [liberal] Kadet Party [led by Miliukov]… The "renovationists" argued that canon law was not immutable… The apotheosis of clerical liberalism finally came in the "Living Church" of the early 1920s… leaders of the Living Church [thus Lenin and his commissars] affirmed 'justice of social revolution and world-wide unification of workers to defend the rights of the toiling and the exploited'… the ritual itself should be changed… simplify the Liturgy [as promoted by the modernists today].419

Such statements legitimize renovationists as spokesmen for the "toiling and the exploited" rather than recognize the astute planning process of nineteenth century Marxist writers and Lenin's circle prior to, during, and after the revolution. Communism's worst damage has been to render man incapable of initiative, motivation, creative work, and - reform. One cannot help but ask why is it that, with the installation of the socialist government so eager to reform, has the government not succeeded in satisfying the "toiling and the exploited?" The answer is that before the revolution, reforms were possible, and enacted on a regular basis. Much was done to continuously improve the state of affairs, both in city as well as rural churches. Obviously, in the slave nation Russia became after 1917, not only were reforms no longer possible, but the Church and its faithful were outlawed.
The fact that the renovationist/modernist movement is still with us today proves that its agenda is an on-going process. The liberal "Living Church" was a step in the direction of weakening the Orthodox Church in order to eventually bring it to destruction, a process very much present to this day with the modernists.420 In Miliukov's "liberal-democratic" Posledniia novosti, we have a confirmation of the fact that the line pursued by the circle of "religious writers and philosophers," along with some members of the intelligentsia, was in fact, anti-monarchist as well as anti-Orthodox and anti-Tikhonite.421 Berdiaev stated:

To join in with Metropolitan Sergius means to completely break with all these princely and tsarist church services that contain in them political overtones. We should not allow any sermons or talks about them [monarchists or tikhonites]. Thus we will liquidate in the Church Abroad all that is connected with revolution [i.e. the past]. On that path, we already have Metropolitan Evlogy… the church will free itself from past political ties and that will be our spiritual return to our motherland.422

Thus, Russia will free itself of its national identity and traditions (both crucial to a nation's survival). This explains the liquidation of the aesthetics associated with Orthodox Russia. It also explains the process of anesthetizing the population into apathy and today's reluctance to even deal with the loss, a goal well in line with ecumenist ideology - to eliminate dividing lines between religions and thus erase their national identity. It must be noted that Metropolitan Evlogy attended one of the earliest meetings of the ecumenical movement in Lausanne.423

Momentous to us today are the words of the cunning socialist/Bolshevik mind at work:

The church is falling apart; to that end we must be of help, but under no circumstance should we object to the renovationists… Right now we are completely interested in supporting them against the monarchists… at the basis of our work in our fight against the clergy is the following task: to struggle with the Tikhonite reactionary clergy. For the realization of this task a group was organized, the so-called "Living Church," which consisted mainly of white "popes" [derogatory term for priest], which gave us the opportunity to create quarrels between bishops and priests, as we did between soldiers and generals… [subtle hint to the moral breakdown devised and implemented by Bolsheviks in the Russian army during WWI]. When this matter will be carried out, i.e. the destruction of the Tikhonites, the significance of which to this very day is first and foremost, when Tikhonites will be broken and discredited, then will the logical conclusion be possible - that which will create paralysis in the unified church, and result in the schismatic breakdown into separate church groups, who will be seeking to enact each their own reforms… We were successful in putting down fiery quarrels among the renovationists in order to create a strong front against Tikhonites who have lately been gaining strength. The result - intensification of punitive measures on the part of the VtsU (the Leadership of the Living Church - Renovationists), aimed at the Tikhonites… thus the schism between the Tikhonites and renovationists becoming more serious… the hostility of these maneuvers reached a point of people coming to blows in the church… which damages the authority of the church and creates very favorable grounds for antireligious propaganda [it is important not to succumb to these tactics of degradation, and to recognize them as a continuation of the same agenda]. Decreed: To commission Tuchkov to take measures to strengthen the tide against Tikhon, and to try to earmark it into an independent, contra-tikhonite hierarchy [Sergianism - Moscow Patriarchate].424

A window into the Church Council (1917-1918) that elected Patriarch Tikhon, meeting under the crackle of gun-fire and thunder of artillery:

On the appointed day, the huge Cathedral of Christ the Savior overflowed with people. Entry was open to everyone. The Liturgy was served by Metropolitan Vladimir, along with many hierarchs. The singing was done, and was done admirably, by the full choir of the Synodal Choir… The church was silent but at the same time, one could feel how the crowd's nervous tension was mounting… And then, the Protodeacon [Rozov], with his bass famous all over Moscow, powerful but at the same time velvety, slowly began to proclaim "Many Years." The tension in the church reached its peak. "Whom will he name?" "…To the Patriarch of Moscow and of All Russia Tikhon!" resounded throughout the entire church and the choir burst out with Many Years!425

Forgotten today is how well-attended the True Church was on the day of Patriarch Tikhon's funeral:

On the day of the Patriarch's funeral the streets of Moscow were overflowing. These were not groups of aging, pious women, but representatives of all classes not only of Moscow but of nearby villages, small towns and cities. The crowds streamed towards the Donskoy monastery. The cathedral and the immense courts of the monastery were packed with people. The walls of the monastery, the turrets, roofs, and trees were filled with those who wanted to bid their last respects to the Patriarch. There were probably some three hundred thousand persons within the monastery walls, and perhaps even more on the streets and nearby squares. All the churches of Moscow rang their bells when the funeral procession started. The choir sang "Eternal Memory," and the crowd began to sing with the choir.426
Around us, all was collapsing, broken were the old ties and traditions, those of the State as well as those of society, even those of family life. Here at the Church Council, we were devising a deed of great historical significance, we were laying the foundation for a new moral and religious rebirth of Russia and, by restoring the Patriarchate, we were initiating the center around which this rebirth will take place.427
Little news of this Church [Catacomb Church or Tikhonites] has come to the free world. The Soviet press long kept silent about her, wishing to give the impression that all believers in the USSR stood behind the Moscow Patriarchate. They even attempted to deny entirely the existence of the Catacomb Church… calling it the "sect" of True Orthodox Christians. It was apparently impossible to keep silent about it any longer; its numbers are too great and it causes the authorities too much alarm… The Soviet rulers fall into a rage over the fact that there exist people who fear God more than men. They are powerless before the millions of True Orthodox Christians.428

Indeed, the resistance to communism was very strong: this was shown not only through peoples' dying for Orthodoxy or going underground into the Catacomb Church, but in their attempts to protect the church and its valuables. Under the guise of following Nil Sorsky's teachings to deny worldly goods, the renovationists of the Living Church worked hand in hand with the Bolsheviks to take over the church valuables in order to "feed the people," which in reality, was never used "for the people," but sold to foreign businessmen to help Lenin fund his revolution. They published appeals ordering people to turn over the valuables without resistance,429 something "the people" ignored. How many books and music scores perished in those raids! The newspaper Zhivaia Tserkov (Living Church) delights in listing precious valuables, including their weight in gold, etc., and provides accounts of how "low the nuns have sunk" when protecting and hiding church valuables in basements and secret doors of their convents.430 What the newspaper does not mention is the horrifying torturing and murdering of monks, nuns, and "people" that was taking place along with the confiscation of valuables. The role of the Living Church was to put people to sleep and make way for the Bolsheviks to destroy Orthodoxy. The "people" did not fall for this deception and perished for their strong faith:

The attempt to start the removal of church valuables at the Smolensky Cathedral was not successful. The crowd of believers remains in the cathedrals day and night and does not allow the commission to do its work. All talks with their delegates did not do any good. We discussed the matter with Trotsky. We have received from him orders which we have implemented. Advise if we must act firmly.431

And act firmly, or rather, violently, he [Trotsky] did!
One of the goals of the Living Church was to eliminate Patriarch Tikhon and all that he represented:

Tikhon's opposition to the removal of church valuables is a crime.432 Do we need a Patriarch? Instead of a patriarch, should we not put at the head of the church a "committee" but without the presence in it of any counter-revolutionary elements (not even in the secretariat).433
In the writings of the revolutionary Vladimir Bonch-Bruevich, we can observe the task of the Bolshevik-led Living Church unfold:

The clergy had to overthrow its past landlord and leader, Patriarch Tikhon… some people are useful and needed for instituting the new life [communism]… they appointed at the Christ the Savior Church a most cunning politician, one of their own, who promulgates church politics, Fr. Krasnitsky [one of the leaders of the Living Church]… Do not think that the church is weak, that it has crumbled, fallen. No, it is still strong and, we, not weakening for a minute, must inflict upon it blow after blow, with open propaganda of our ideas, of our materialistic world view, remembering once and for all, that the religious world view is deeply damaging to our order of thinking… we must fight religion to its end, until man will totally cleanse himself from this leprosy skin and from all religious beliefs/prejudices. Religious thinking is one of the most conservative disciplines and fight it we must at all cost, especially with the help of our youth.434

Finally, the main leader and agitator of the Living Church, a priest of non-Orthodox origins and Bolshevik collaborator,435 A. Vvedensky, wrote words that are sadly familiar to us as we witness a similar false union with the "Mother Church" being promoted today:

Oh if only we could all merge in an upsurge of love and brotherhood! Then as in a dream, this paralysis of the church would end. The free church in a free [sic!] Russia would warm like the bright sun, all the good and the bad, as our Lord spoke about this.436

Let us recall the true intentions behind the "love and brotherhood":

Protocol No. 64. 14 February 1925. Resolution: To open with the permission of the Leningrad Gubispolkom [Regional Executive Comity ed.] two Theological Academies (one Tikhonite and the other renovationist), and then combine them together into one renovationist academy, to be taken care of by Tuchkov [responsible for the murder of thousands of Orthodox] in conjunction with Leningrad.437

To be continued.

Note: The article above, edited by Holy Trinity Monastery, is one installment in a series of extracts from the original book, Russian Liturgical Choral Aesthetics: Its Past in Tradition and Present in Ruins, by Olga Dolskaya, Associate Professor at the Conservatory of Music, University of Missouri, Kansas City. The extracts published here contain the main historical section of the original book and only some important excerpts from the analysis and interpretation of specific Liturgical compositions. The full version of the book, including cassette tapes, may be ordered from:
Olga Dolskaya
The Conservatory of Music
University of Missouri Kansas City,
4949 Cherry St.,
Kansas City, MO 64110-2499
or by e-mail at AckerlyO@umkc.edu

FOOTNOTES:
[Gaps in the footnote numbers are due to the omitted interpretations and analysis of recordings supplied with the full version of the book. Ed.]
380) This brief look at the southern region near Ekaterinodar is but one example of many, where entire segments of the population such as the kalmyks were exterminated by the communists. Struggling Russia. Government Documents, October 25, 1919, pp. 497-498.
381) V. Genis, "Raskazachivanie v Sovetskoi Rossii," in Voprosy istorii, no. 1 (1994), pp. 42-55.
382) On the socialization of women in Ekaterinodar, by decree issued in 1918, authorizing rapes and murders of young women aged 16-20 by Bolsheviks, see Duguet, Un bagne en Russie rouge, pp. 253-255.
383) V. Soloukhin, Solenoe ozero (The Salty Lake), 1994, pp. 69, 73, 116-117, 133.
384) V. Soloukhin, Pri svete dnia (In the Light of Day), 1992, p. 196.
385) V. Soloukhin, Solenoe ozero, p. 197.
386) N. Valentinov, "Dash khleb, I chelovek priklonitsa" (Give Him Bread, and Man Will Bend), Maloznakomyi Lenin (The Little-Known Lenin). Paris, 1972, p. 155.
387) Letter from 1920 to Jan Barzin, a Central Committee member of Latvian origin. Quoted in Dmitri Volkogonov, Lenin: A New Biography, 1994, p. xxxvii.
388) Ibid.
389) Lenin's letter to I.I. Skvortsov-Stepanov, dated 19th March, 1922. The Letters of Lenin, E. Hill and D. Mudie, eds. NY: 1937, p. 473.
390) Nadezhda Krupskaia, Memoirs of Lenin, vol. 1, 1930, pp. 123-passim.
391) Lenin's letter of March 28, 1898 to Elizarov. Lenin-Krupskaia-Ulianovy- Perepiska (1883-1900). Moscow: 1981, p. 105.
392) "Soviet Russia needs the intelligentsia, we know what we are doing," said Commissar Zinoviev (Anfelbaum), in charge of the exile. And indeed, they proceeded to lure emigre hierarchs to their side as was the case with Metropolitan Evlogii who collaborated with Moscow. N. Sigida, "Tragediia Vladimira Solovieva," Novoe russkoe Slovo, 6 February, no. 19326.
393) RUl', 21 November, 1922.
394) Connected to the YMCA is the International Church Movement propagated in part by the Union Theological Seminary, also known as the "Red Seminary," whose instructors were members of Socialist/Communist Parties. See Elizabeth Dilling, A Who's Who and Handbook of Radicalism for Patriots; The Red Network, p. 232, passim.
395) See Bernard Smith, The Fraudulent Gospel: Politics and World Council of Churches. London, 1991.
396) See Boobbyer, Philip, S.L. Frank: The Life and Works of a Russian Philosopher 1877-1950, 1995, pp. 122- passim.
397) Ieromonakh Damaskin (Orlovsky), Mucheniki, ispovedniki I podvizhniki blagochestiia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi XX stoletiia, 1996, p. 14.
398) Ibid, p. 14.
399) Also funded by the YMCA. N. Talberg, K sorokaletiiu pagubnago evlogianskago raskola. 1966, p. 26.
400) For a list of his works see, V. Frank, Bibliographie des oeuvres de Simon Frank. Published by the Paris Institut d'Etudes Slaves, sous la direction de T. Ossorguine, 1980.
401) S.L. Frank, Biografiia P.B. Struve, NY: Chekhov Press, 1956, p. 37.
402) S.L. Frank, "Russkoe samoderzhavie," Osvobozhdenie, 2-15 June, 1903, no. 24, p. 430.
403) Boobbyer Philip, S. L. Frank: The Life and Works of a Russian Philosopher. Ohio University Press: 1995, p. 152.
404) Boobbyer Philip, S.L. Frank, pp. 122-178, passim.
405) P. Struve, ed. "Obshchee delo" in Osvobozhdenie, Stuttgart: 1903, pp. 24-50. Also see S.Frank, Biografiia P. Struve. New York: 1956, p. 16.
406) Nikolai Fedorov, Filosofiia obshchego dela, 1906. Also see N.F. Fedorov, Sochineniia, Filosofskoe nasledie Series, vol. 85. Moscow, 1982, pp. 17-30, 38-48 and 53-95.
407) Helen Iswolsky,"The Prophet of Universality, The Twilight Men," in The Soul of Russia, 1943, p. 165.
408) For additional information on the YMCA, their worldwide and inter-faith educational programs and ties to the Rockefeller Foundation, WCC and other ecumenical organizations, see Pioneers of Religious Education in the 20th Century: A Festschrift for Herman Wornom, ed. by B. Kathan, R. Miller, H. Cully, H. Simmons, and A. Schiff, 1978.
409) Helen Iswolsky, Light Before Dusk: A Russian Catholic in France, 1923-1941. NY: 1942, pp.84-94.
410) Helen Iswolsky, No Time to Grieve… Autobiographical Journey. NY: 1985, pp. 257-258.
411) N. Talberg, K sorokaletiiu pagubnago evlogianskago raskola, 1966, p. 31.
412) Philip M. Walters,"Berdiaev, N.A.," The Modern Encyclopedia of Religion in Russia and the Soviet Union. vol. 4 (1991), p. 56.
413) M. Manukhina, Put' moei zhizni: Vospominaniia Metropolita Evlogiia. YMCA Press, Paris, 1947, pp. 618 passim and 669 passim. Also see Talberg, K sorokaletiiu pagubnago evlogianskogo raskola, pp. 69-75.
414) For information on Metropolitan Evlogii's funding activities and connections, see Manukhina, Put' moei zhizni, pp.441-442, 412-418 and 446-453.
415) I. Andreev, The Catacomb Church in the Soviet Union, 1951, p. 4
416) For recent writings and propaganda of the Official Church, as well as their condemnation of the karlovtsy (Church Abroad), see Iz istorii khristianskoi tserkvi na rodine I za rubezhom v XX stoletii, Materialy po istorii tserkvi Series, vol. 5. Krutitskoe Patriarshee podvorie, Moscow, 1995, pp.280-281, among others.
417) I. Andreev, "Sergianism or Adaptation to Atheism (The Leaven of Herod)," in Russia's Catacomb Saints, 1982, p. 465.
418) Catherine Evtuhov, The Cross and the Sickle, Cornell University Press, pp. 117-118.
419) G. Freeze, The Parish Clergy in 19th-century Russia, 1983, pp.470-473.
420) See "Obnovlenchestvo 20kh I 90kh godov - Nerazryvnaia preemstvennost'" (The Unremitting Continuity)" in Sovremennoe Obnovlenchestvo: Protestanskogo Vostochnogo obriada (Contemporary Renovationism: Of the Eastern Protestant Rite), 1996.
421) Posledniia novosti, n. 2347, 26 August. 1927.
422) N. Berdiaev, Posledniia novosti, no. 2365.
423) N. Talberg, K sorokaletiiu pagubnago evlogianskago raskola, 1966, p. 67.
424) From Secret Documents and Revolutionary Protocols. Orders by Dzerzhinsky, Trotsky, Tuchkov and others, 1921-1924. See Ieromonakh Damaskin (Orlovsky), Mucheniki, ispovedniki I podvizhniki blagochestiia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi xx stoletiia, vol. 2. Tver: 1966, pp. 6-14.
425) "Prince I. Vasil'chikov, "Moe uchastie v pomestnom tserkovnom sobore rossiiskoi pravoslavnoi tserkvi 1917-1918 godov" in Novyi zhurnal (The New Review), book 102. New York: 1971, p. 149.
426) Archpriest Michael Polsky, The New Martyrs of Russia, 1972, p.52.
427) Prince I. Vasil'chikov, "Moe uchastie," p. 150.
428) Ivan Andreev, Russia's Catacomb Saints: Lives of the New Martyrs, 1982, pp. 567-568.
429) One such appeal was written by the revolutionary Vladimir Lvov in Zhivaia Tserkov, May 1922, no. 2, pp. 9-10. Also see p. 16, passim.
430) Zhivaia Tserkov, 1922, no. 2, p. 21.
431) Ieromonakh Damaskin (Orlovsky), Mucheniki, ispovedniki i podvizhniki blagochestiia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi XX stoletiia. Tver: 1996, p. 458.
432) Zhivaia tserkov, no. 3 (1922), p. 22.
433) Zhivaia tserkov, no. 3 (1922), p. 8.
434) Vladimir Bonch-Bruevitch, Zhivaia tserkov I proletariat, written in 1922. 4th edition, 1929, pp. 24, 25, 28, 62-63.
435) Prof. S. Troitsky, Chto takoe Zhivaia Tserkov? Warsaw: 1927, pp. 13, 61..
436) See A. Vvedensky, Zhivaia tserkov, May 1922 and other issues for his writings.
437) In Ieromonakh Damaskin (Orlovsky), Mucheniki, ispovedniki I podvizhniki blagochestiia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi XX stoletiia. Tver: 1996, p. 14.


  



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